Daylight Saving time or, in other words, summer time transition is regulation of clocks to get more hours of daylight in evenings, but less daylight hours in mornings. Daylight saving time, as one might guess, is meant for saving of electric power. Transition to summer time happens in spring, when clock indicators are turned one hour forwards. In autumn clock indicators are turned one hour backwards.
Daylight saving time is time counting system, which is used in periods of summer and spring. Daylight saving time is one hour ahead of the time of time zones. The majority of countries uses daylight saving time from the last Sunday of March to the last Sunday of October, when clock indicators are turned one hour backwards again.
The idea of daylight saving time arose in the end of 18th century. In the year of 1784 Benjamin Franklin, an envoy of USA, which was living in Paris, wrote an essay “Summer Time” and sent it to his friend, which was an editor of “Journal of Paris”. An idea, which is presented in Franklin’s essay, arose when some sudden noise disturbed his sleep in 06:00 a.m. When Benjamin Franklin woke up, he was surprised by the bright light, which was illuminating his bedroom. It was the moment when he had the idea about daylight saving time. Performing simple mathematical calculations, Franklin worked out, how much money residents of Paris spend, when they go to bed after midnight and wake up only in lunch time, in period of time from 20th of March to 20th of September unnecessarily burning candles and kerosene lamps.
Nowadays daylight saving time is realized by 76 countries all over the world, but it does not mean that in these countries transition to summer time occurs at the same time. In 10 of these countries transition to summer time occurs in different times. It is interesting that the majority of countries, which is 128 countries all over the world, does not use daylight saving time. In majority of countries, which use daylight saving time, transition to summer time happens on the last Sunday of March, when at 03:00 a.m. clock indicators are turned one hour forwards, namely, to 04:00 a.m. .
In last years there are a lot of discussions about usefulness of daylight saving time and its influence on health. It is scientifically proven that daylight saving time reduces the amount of used electric power, as well as reduces the number of traffic accidents and crimes. Almost everyone, but especially those, who live in northern countries, feels depression of dark season. An extra hour of daylight improves psychological and physical health, as well as the sense of safety. But there are negative aspects of daylight saving time too. Transition to summer time influences some people’s physical health and emotional well-being for some period of time, affecting their feeling and work capacity. There are a lot of public organizations all over the world, which are trying to achieve the cancellation of daylight saving time.
Every argument has a counterargument. Everything that is saved at the expense of lighting, is spent for heating in mornings and conditioners in noons. Daylight summer time disorganizes biological rhythms, but serves an extra time and sense of safety in evenings. Local tourism gets income, but international carriers gets losses. Environment gets less pollution in mornings, but more pollution in evenings. Despite the fact that a lot of researches do not prove the economical and social effect of daylight saving time, majority of economically developed countries supports regime of summer time. As everyone saves money at the expense of lighting, there is no need for fast loans, because everything can be purchased with personal means.